Curitiba – Brazil

urban-design-Curitaba-Brazil

Curitiba, Brazil

Greenest City in the World?

Jamie Lerner stands as something of a hero among his fellow Curitibanos.  The chief architect of the Curitiba Master Plan, he was appointed mayor during Brazil’s military dictatorship in 1971. When the nation returned to democracy, he was elected to another term. During his 12 years in office, Lerner devised many of Curitiba’s innovative, inexpensive solutions to city problems. For instance, in the early days of the public transit system, to increase its funding and encourage ridership, he made a special city lottery, valuing bus fare as lottery tickets. To combat Curitiba’s growing litter problem, he created more incentives for recycling, including exchanging bottles, cans and other recyclables for food. Lerner believed in implementing plans swiftly — in just 72 hours, he converted the city’s downtown into Brazil’s first pedestrian mall.

Curitiba does not lie at the seaside but a true ‘green sea’ is at the population’s disposal: altogether, there are 30 municipal parks and woods as well as dozens of squares, playgrounds, gardens and areas decorated with ornamental shrubbery.

Back in the early 70s, a strategic decision was made regarding the empty urban spaces: instead of dividing these areas up into land developments, the City Hall decided to use such areas as an environmental “market reserve”. From 1972 on, parks and woods have been set up on these empty stretches of land. This strategic move aimed at better environmental conservation, sanitation and recreational purposes, and the prevention of floods. At that time there was only one park in the entire city, the old Passeio Público located downtown, built in 1886.

In 1989 Curitiba introduced, on a wide-scale basis, before any other town in the country, the separation of domestic waste into different types of garbage through the ‘Lixo que não é Lixo’ program. Later on, new variations of the program were created such as the Câmbio Verde (Green Exchange program) – through which recyclable garbage could be exchanged for fresh produce that was in season – and the Compra do Lixo program (through which recyclable garbage is bought) in more remote locations.

CURITIBA’S STRATEGIC APPROACH TO URBAN PLANNING

A French planner, Alfred Agache, developed the first plan to direct urban growth in Curitiba in 1943. The government did not implement the plan.  Its main legacy was to introduce the concept of urban planning to Curitiba’s citizens and government.  This awareness edged closer to action in 1964 when the city administration commissioned a Preliminary Urban Plan.  To encourage an influx of new ideas, the city held a competition for the best plan among local and national professionals.  The result was the Curitiba Master Plan.  In 1965, the city created the Curitiba Research and Urban Planning Institute to implement the plan and to continue the planning process.

From 1965 to 1970, the city administration gave the master plan a low priority.  It did, however, provide the Institute with resources to detail procedures for implementing the plan.  In 1971, a new administration began to put the plan into practice (Curitiba Research and Urban Planning Institute 1965).

Political will and political skill were important factors in initiating the practical steps to implement the plan.  Officials had to adapt each of the plan’s elements and sometimes set them aside as the two-dimensional planning concepts met a three-dimensional reality.  This interaction between concept and reality led to a practical, repetitive planning process.

Today, Curitiba’s practical planning process is firmly established.  When ideas are proposed, they are tested conceptually and then in application.  These tests generate feedback that leads to further improvements and applications. The ongoing process allows Curitiba to fashion solutions that fit real problems.  Rather than being stymied by feedback, it refreshes and redirects the process along a progressive path. After two decades of successes, the Urban Planning Institute is now well established as the local incubator for an urban planning tradition that emphasizes interplay between planning, analysis, participatory planning and implementation.

Planning Principles

The implementation of the Curitiba Master Plan addressed transportation, land use controls, and a hierarchical structure of the road network.  Planners viewed them as complementary tools for guiding city growth.  The plan combines these tools to direct growth out of the central city and into arterial growth corridors.  Arterial and feeder roadways as well as land use  controls on settlement densities defined these corridors.

The purpose of the five structural growth corridors was to redirect growth out of the central city and into the corridors. This displacement of growth more evenly distributes settlement densities in the city center and in the growth corridors.  This avoids a sharp peak in central city densities and the concomitant traffic congestion and noise.  The more even density distribution

reduces congestion enough to facilitate uncongested travel while maintaining passenger numbers at high enough levels to allow public transportation to be financially self-sustaining.

Convenient transportation and more balanced densities also:

  • encourage economic development by reducing the costs of  mobility, trade, and exchange within the city;
  • reduce the indirect costs of other infrastructure improvements such as water, sewage, electricity, and communication; and
  • assist in preserving historic buildings and areas within the city center.

Consequences

The gradual development of Curitiba’s integrated transportation system is the most visible result of the city’s planning processes.  While this paper focuses on transportation, it is important to remember that planners in Curitiba do not isolate transportation as an entity apart from other aspects of urban life.  They do not view streets only as paved surfaces but as elements in a larger network and hierarchy of roads.  A building is not an isolated box but a traffic/public transport-generating element in a larger pattern of settlement.

Curitiba analyzes travel as a movement and exchange between activities.  Traditional city planning approaches tend to be static and oriented toward physical features.  Traditional transportation planning tends to be excessively data-demanding, equation-based, and technocratic.  Curitiba’s planning focuses more on the relationship between space and movement.  It emphasizes the dynamic features of urban activities.  It considers how much should be invested where.

The city uses transportation to heighten the socio-economic payoff from its planning activities.  One example is the city’s role in low income housing.  Rather than build isolated, large scale, and uniform housing projects, the city took advantage of effective transportation.  Curitiba acquired land near some of the planned structural corridors before developing them.  As the transportation routes were put into place, the city subsidized low income housing close to these transportation routes and close to the Curitiba Industrial City.  It also located other small scale, low income, housing developments throughout the city. These are near the transportation corridors and thus are ‘near’ in time and cost to employment and other activities.  These small scale developments blend into the surrounding residential areas.

They integrate rather than isolate low income households into the economy and culture of the larger city.  As a result of this strategy, the city has built housing for 17,000 families.

The road hierarchy system is another element of Curitiba’s planning system.  Each road has a function in relation to its location and importance.  Curitiba uses four basic categories to define roads by location and function.  There are arterial structural roads that are at the core of five growth corridors. Priority linkages run between and connect the city center to the  city’s outskirts.  Collector streets are common urban streets typically lined with commercial activity and allowing all forms of traffic.  Connector streets link the structural roads to the industrial city.

Land use controls target two basic parameters: the land use type and the density of development.  The four basic land use categories are residential, commercial, industrial, and services. Allowable densities vary in relation to available transportation. Along most structural routes, buildings can have a total floor area of up to six times the plot size.  On lower capacity roads  that are well served by public transportation, the city permits floor space up to four times plot size.  The permitted ratio of floor space to plot size decreases with the distance a land site is from public transportation.

The land use density controls encourage a shift of development activity from the central city to and around the structural axes. This locates high density residential and commercial in the same areas and matches density to the availability of public transport.  This eases traffic and human congestion in the central city.  Planners converted wide central avenues in the central city into open air pedestrian malls and walkways.  These malls and walkways reinforce the city center as a pleasant locale that preserves historic elements and where pedestrians have priority.

Evolution of the Transportation System – Curitiba

http://www.wisc.edu/epat/

www.curitiba.pr.gov.br


Urban Design…CURITIBA, BRAZIL.

53 comments for “Curitiba – Brazil

  1. January 16, 2012 at 2:32 pm

    Great paintings! This is the kind of info that should be shared across the internet. Disgrace on the seek engines for now not positioning this post upper! Come on over and talk over with my site . Thank you

  2. Eliza Rhinebolt
    January 26, 2012 at 9:43 pm

    I stumbled onto a lot of fascinating stuff in your weblog.

  3. June 2, 2012 at 9:10 am

    Heya this is a superb article. I’m going to e-mail this to my friends. I stumbled on this while browsing on yahoo I’ll be sure to come back. thanks for sharing.

  4. June 18, 2012 at 1:05 pm

    My spouse and i? m unsure the key reason why however this kind of great site might be loading unbelievably slower for me. Is anyone else having one of these brilliant issue or perhaps is it a challenge on my own end? My companion and my spouse and i? lmost most return as time goes on if at any time the predicament still exists.

  5. June 20, 2012 at 4:14 am

    The attractiveness of those blogging engines and CMS platforms could be the lack of limitations and ease of manipulation that makes it possible for developers to put into action prosperous content and ’skin’ the web site in such a way that with genuinely tiny function 1 certain would never ever discover what it’s generating the site tick all devoid of limiting material and effectiveness.

  6. June 25, 2012 at 4:11 pm

    I thought your article was neat and will visit frequently.

  7. November 29, 2013 at 4:03 pm

    I enjoy what you guys are up too. This sort of clever work and reporting! Keep up the terrific works guys I’ve incorporated you

  8. December 2, 2013 at 5:21 am

    Its like you read my thoughts!

  9. September 13, 2014 at 7:10 pm

    Believe it or not unlike the Brits in The most beneficial Exotic Marigold Hotel, who want to leave England I would enjoy to retire to England. I love that country!

  10. September 15, 2014 at 9:43 pm

    I’m just eagerly expecting the download links.

  11. September 16, 2014 at 7:07 am

    Should are actually a slow day for the beach.

  12. September 18, 2014 at 4:49 pm

    Congrats to Chelsea!

  13. September 19, 2014 at 5:15 am
  14. September 21, 2014 at 7:30 am

    not whenever they definitely dont treatment about our survival which they dont it may be bullshit but when it does come about it will possibly be somthing like this . NO warning in the least, thats why all the important governments with the environment are actually building underground bunkers which possibly want perform anyhow

  15. September 22, 2014 at 3:56 am
  16. September 22, 2014 at 7:06 am
  17. September 23, 2014 at 1:23 am

    I love you.

  18. September 23, 2014 at 2:49 am
  19. September 23, 2014 at 6:14 am

    You could certainly see your expertise within the work you write. The arena hopes for more passionate writers such as you who aren’t afraid to mention how they believe. All the time go after your heart. “If the grass is greener in the other fellow’s yard – let him worry about cutting it.” by Fred Allen.

  20. September 24, 2014 at 7:41 pm

    My husband and i have been so fulfilled that Jordan managed to carry out his reports through the entire ideas he came across through your weblog. It is now and again perplexing to simply continually be offering hints that many the others may have been selling. We figure out we have you to thank because of that. All the illustrations you’ve made, the straightforward site navigation, the friendships you make it easier to promote – it’s got all amazing, and it is helping our son in addition to us know that that idea is pleasurable, and that’s particularly indispensable. Many thanks for all the pieces!

  21. September 25, 2014 at 5:47 am

    L’ensemƄle dee ces articles sont véritablement intéressants

  22. September 25, 2014 at 8:27 am

    I wish to convey my gratitude for your kindness for visitors who absolutely need assistance with that idea. Your real dedication to passing the message all over had been pretty practical and has without exception enabled associates much like me to realize their targets. Your own warm and friendly key points indicates a lot to me and extremely more to my mates. With thanks; from each one of us.

  23. September 25, 2014 at 9:01 am

    i need your site link you there plz replay me

  24. September 25, 2014 at 9:34 am

    Well… round about every blog posts online don’t have much originality as I found on yours.. Just keep updating much useful information so that reader like me would come back over and over again.

  25. September 25, 2014 at 10:58 am

    You need to take part in a contest for one of the best blogs online. I most certainly will suggest this page!

  26. September 25, 2014 at 7:30 pm

    I

  27. Pingback: Waterproof tablet
  28. September 26, 2014 at 11:59 pm

    I’m really enjoying the theme/design of your website. Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility problems? A few of my blog readers have complained about my website not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox. Do you have any tips to help fix this issue?Comment

  29. September 27, 2014 at 2:04 am

    I really wanted to compose a small comment to be able to say thanks to you for all of the amazing items you are sharing on this website. My extended internet look up has at the end of the day been paid with sensible facts and strategies to go over with my neighbours. I would point out that many of us site visitors are truly fortunate to exist in a fine website with very many outstanding individuals with insightful basics. I feel somewhat lucky to have discovered the weblog and look forward to many more amazing times reading here. Thanks a lot once more for all the details.

  30. September 27, 2014 at 3:03 am

    i need your site link you there plz replay me

  31. September 27, 2014 at 6:16 am

    Great ?V I should certainly pronounce, impressed with your website. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs as well as related info ended up being truly simple to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least. Reasonably unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything, web site theme . a tones way for your customer to communicate. Nice task.

  32. September 27, 2014 at 6:19 am

    Wide lace top plus developer dresses settled gratitude towards admirable alarms Pregnancy Dresses Regarding Special Occasions we had,enter this website,the following attained August, in addition to virtually anyone is certainly agreeing to an innovative discovered verification for this particular very appearance. You must approve simply no recognizing inventive with each of your fresh gown, regularly any time you presently accept a vivid fashionable designs of the way in which you desire it again to appear.

  33. September 27, 2014 at 7:27 am

    Simple Advice In Chicago Long Distance Mover Across The Uk at::- CHICAGO Long Distance Moving

  34. September 27, 2014 at 8:25 am

    Investigating Swift Programs For Chicago Long Distance Mover at::- CHICAGO Long Distance Moving

  35. September 27, 2014 at 10:14 am

    Seen concerning juicy couture previously? This can be a custom throughout the world. Many individuals specially females have,juicy couture suits,serious interest on juicy couture.Basically, Juicy Couture is a Gulf Region trend firm reselling it is collections of latest recreational together with sportswear plus gadgets. Generally there strains have got a best bit of class and design. Typically the Luscious term removed anytime Hollywood celebrities begun dressed in their particular attire plus toting ones own totes.

  36. September 27, 2014 at 10:15 am

    I’m really enjoying the theme/design of your website. Do you ever run into any web browser compatibility problems? A few of my blog readers have complained about my website not operating correctly in Explorer but looks great in Firefox. Do you have any tips to help fix this issue?Comment

  37. September 27, 2014 at 5:13 pm

    Always verify the truth before taking any legal actions. Hope this problem is already fixed.

  38. September 27, 2014 at 6:59 pm

    The State inspection report notes that Bright Start teachers were not following a policy of using written attendance sheets because it was Christmas Eve.

  39. September 27, 2014 at 8:14 pm

    Hi! I could have sworn I’ve been to this website before but after browsing through some of the post I realized it’s new to me. Nonetheless, I’m definitely delighted I found it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back often!

  40. September 27, 2014 at 8:23 pm

    Well… round about every blog posts online don’t have much originality as I found on yours.. Just keep updating much useful information so that reader like me would come back over and over again.

  41. September 28, 2014 at 12:35 pm

    Well… round about every blog posts online don’t have much originality as I found on yours.. Just keep updating much useful information so that reader like me would come back over and over again.

  42. September 28, 2014 at 1:16 pm

    i love your blog and i think its going to my favorite!keep up the good work and i look forward to your next article

  43. September 28, 2014 at 1:46 pm

    I absolutely love your site.. Pleasant colors & theme. Did you develop this web site yourself? Please reply back as I’m attempting to create my own personal website and would love to learn where you got this from or just what the theme is named. Appreciate it!

  44. September 28, 2014 at 2:24 pm

    Ferdja.com – is a web service for Website Owners, Website Stats and Website Valuation , worth calculator is a full featured Website Stats and Website Valuation, Webmasters and General Internet Users to retrieve information related with Domain Name, IP Address, Web Server and Search Engine Optimization (SEO). It is the tool that provides various statistical reports for any website like Website Valuation, Search Engine Reports, Traffic Reports, Social Engagement, Safety, Host Information, Domain WHOIS, Page Speed and much more. Simply type your Domain Name above for such awesome reports.

  45. September 28, 2014 at 5:20 pm

    It seems that everyone these days in Saskatchewan’s capital is so busy with life, family, work and a million other commitments. When a need arises for a product or service and you can’t think who to contact where do you turn? Perhaps the business you select randomly yourself or find in other ways lets you down and does a bad job….living in Regina can present it’s challenges ….with new businesses springing up all the time and existing businesses getting busier standards can suffer.

  46. September 29, 2014 at 6:09 pm

    Many parents worry that the business they invest in today might be gone in a few years – and certainly worry about risk over 21 years. By selecting our services, parents are assured that their baby’s cord blood is stored at a highly credentialed facility that will be there for a lifetime and beyond.

  47. September 29, 2014 at 6:18 pm

    It is your colourful blog that brings me a lot of knowledge about living.

  48. September 29, 2014 at 11:27 pm

    Boon je n’ai pas eu l’occasion ɗe terminer Ԁe
    reցarder toutefois ʝee reviens dans la ѕoirée

  49. September 30, 2014 at 1:45 am

    When I originally commented I clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now every time a comment is added I get 4 emails using the same comment. Is there any way you may take away me from that service? Thanks!

  50. September 30, 2014 at 4:57 am

    I think this is among the most significant information for me.And i’m glad reading your article. But want to remark on few general things, The web site style is great, the articles is really nice : D. Good job, cheers

  51. Pingback: www.omlat.net
  52. Pingback: ITNews

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *